Strategies of Effective Feedback in Education


Feedback is a method used to improve student achievement. The teacher provides feedback to students to reinforce expectations and correct student errors during lessons. Feedback is often cited as the most powerful tool available for improving student performance. This claim is supported by more than seven analyses.

Classroom teachers use corrective feedback as an instructional technique every day. Feedback may be as simple as praise, repeating assignments the next day, correcting student misconceptions on the spot, or as an element of active student response.

Other effective strategies rely on peer review or self-evaluation to increase feedback. For best results, feedback must meet four basic conditions:

·       Feedback must be objective, reliable, measurable, and specific.

·       Feedback should provide information about what was done well, what needs improvement, and how to improve.

·       Feedback should be frequent and immediate after the performance.

·       Feedback is specific to performance, not personality traits.

The Most Famous Examples of Feedback

Feedback can be used in many ways such as:

Ø  Correct Answer Feedback: 

The teacher provides the student with the correct answer. Multiple studies have shown that providing the entire word is more effective than phonetic emphasis in reducing errors.

Ø  Paraphrasing:

Without directly indicating that a student's statement was incorrect, the teacher implicitly rephrases the student's error or offers a correction.

Ø  Explanation:

The teacher explains in detail and clarifies each point so that the student can reach the correct result.

Ø  Repetition:

The teacher repeats the student's mistake and adjusts the expression to draw the student's attention to it.

The Importance of Feedback

Following feedback leads to many benefits for the student, including:

ü  Makes the student less defensive: A student is more likely to receive feedback as a means of help from a teacher, rather than criticism.

ü  Gives the student behavior that he focuses on: This type of feedback makes the student present more options on how to correct his skills, and he can focus on his alternative behavior instead of focusing on others.

ü  Relying on the solution: Feedback focuses on the solution, not the individual. It focuses on what the child can do, not what he should have done.

ü  The desired result is likely to be produced without problems: When the child begins to try the steps received from the teacher's feedback, it is a belief in the teacher's effort as well, which when the modified behavior meets his needs will continue with this behavior afterward, resulting in a solution to the problem.

Tips When Using Feedback

ü  Comments must be educational

Providing feedback means giving students an explanation of what they are doing correctly and incorrectly, however, the focus of the feedback should be primarily based on what students are doing correctly, and it is most beneficial to student learning when they are provided with an explanation and example of what is accurate and inaccurate in their work.

ü  Feedback should be provided promptly

When feedback is given immediately after evidence of learning has been shown, the student responds positively and recalls the experience of what was learned confidently. If too long is waited to provide feedback, the moment is lost and the student may not connect the feedback to the action.

ü  Be sensitive to the student's individual needs

We must take into account each student when providing feedback. Classrooms are full of diverse learners. Some students need to be motivated to achieve at a higher level and others need to be handled very gently so as not to discourage learning and damage self-esteem. It is necessary to strike a balance between. Not wanting to hurt the student's feelings and providing appropriate encouragement.

ü  Talk to the child individually

Talking to the student one-on-one is one of the most effective ways to provide feedback. The student will be looking to attract attention and provide the opportunity to ask necessary questions. The scope of the one-on-one talk should be generally upbeat, as this will encourage the student to look forward to the next meeting. As with all aspects of teaching, this strategy requires good time management, and interviews can be scheduled to be no longer than 10 minutes.

ü  Focus on one ability or skill

Feedback has a much greater impact on the student when one skill is critiqued versus many skills.

ü  Educate students on how to provide feedback to each other

To train students to give constructive feedback to each other positively and helpfully, encourage students to use sticky notes to record feedback given.

ü  Have the student take notes?

Have the student write while speaking, and the student can use a notebook to take notes while giving oral feedback.

ü  Use a notebook to track student progress

Notes for each student should be kept in a small notebook. Comments can be written daily or weekly about each student as necessary.

Good student questions, behavior issues, areas for improvement, and test scores must also be tracked. This requires a lot of time management, but when it comes time to talk to a student or parent, the teacher is prepared.

ü  Use sticky notes

Sometimes seeing a written comment is more effective than just hearing it out loud. During study time, you can try writing the comments on a small piece of paper, and place the note on the desk of the student for whom the feedback is to be made.

ü  Student note

An effort should be made to observe the student's behavior or effort on a task. For example, the teacher might say to the student: I noticed that when you regrouped correctly in the hundreds column, you understood the question correctly, or I noticed that you arrived on time for class this entire week, and recognized Students and the efforts they put in go a long way to positively impact academic performance.

ü Provide a  model or example for the student to follow

The teacher can communicate with students for evaluation and comments and can explain to students what is meant by giving them an example of this thing. This is especially important at higher levels of learning.

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